Blood‐protein allele frequencies and phylogenetic relationships in Macaca: A review

Jack Fooden, Scott M. Lanyon

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46 Scopus citations


Allele‐frequency data have been assembled for 35 blood‐protein loci in 17 of 19 recognized species of Macaca based on 29 published electrophoretic studies; studies of inbred captive colonies have been excluded. Data for 22 polymorphic loci are tabulated in detail for 43 geographic populations of these species. Calculated FST values provide a measure of intergroup genetic differentiation at various hierarchical levels—troop, locality, province, country or island, species, species group; polymorphism indices measure genetic variation. The greatest intraspecific genetic differentiation occurs at the level of island populations within species. The pattern of genetic variation among island populations appears to be relictual, suggesting that the reduced genetic variability of island populations of macaques is a result of postisolation genetic drift rather than founder effect. Interspecific relationships were investigated by means of a jackknifed Fitch‐Margoliash algorithm, using Papio as outgroup. Phylogenetic inferences based on morphology and zoogeography. The reduced genetic variability that frequently characterizes insular macaque populations complicates phylogenetic interpretation of blood‐protein evidence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)209-241
Number of pages33
JournalAmerican journal of primatology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1989
Externally publishedYes


  • blood proteins
  • electrophoresis
  • genetic distance
  • phylogenetics


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