Growth of organisms and their constituent parts responds to both intrinsic and extrinsic cues during development: organisms of a given species generally grow at a predictable rate and to a specific body size, but individuals can modify this program during development in response to environmental conditions. Recent experiments, using gene knockouts and targeted overexpression, have revealed the central role of a signaling network controlled by the PI3K and TOR kinases in this regulation. These signaling molecules control growth by coordinately regulating a large number of cell biological processes. This review focuses on the cellular activities regulated by PI3K and TOR during development, and discusses how changes in different aspects of cellular metabolism may interact to regulate growth.
- Cell growth
- Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase
- Spindle orientation
- Target of rapamycin