Purpose: HLA-mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with increased graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and impaired survival. In reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), neither ex vivo nor in vivo T-cell depletion (eg, antithymocyte globulin) convincingly improved outcomes. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has immunomodulatory properties potentially beneficial for control of GVHD in T-cell-replete HLA-mismatched transplantation. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective phase I/II trial of a GVHD prophylaxis regimen of short-course bortezomib, administered once per day on days +1, +4, and +7 after peripheral blood stem-cell infusion plus standard tacrolimus and methotrexate in patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing MMUD RIC HSCT. We report outcomes for 45 study patients: 40 (89%) 1-locus and five (11%) 2-loci mismatches (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, or -DQB1), with a median of 36.5 months (range, 17.4 to 59.6 months) follow-up. Results: The 180-day cumulative incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD was 22% (95% CI, 11% to 35%). One-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 29% (95% CI, 16% to 43%). Two-year cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and relapse were 11% (95% CI, 4% to 22%) and 38% (95% CI, 24% to 52%), respectively. Two-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 51% (95% CI, 36% to 64%) and 64% (95% CI, 49% to 76%), respectively. Bortezomib-treated HLA-mismatched patients experienced rates of NRM, acute and chronic GVHD, and survival similar to those of contemporaneous HLA-matched RIC HSCT at our institution. Immune recovery, including CD8+ T-cell and natural killer cell reconstitution, was enhanced with bortezomib. Conclusion: A novel short-course, bortezomib-based GVHD regimen can abrogate the survival impairment of MMUD RIC HSCT, can enhance early immune reconstitution, and appears to be suitable for prospective randomized evaluation.