Turnovers of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and 5 hydroxytryptamine (5 HT) were determined in the brains of male turkeys during acute, chronic, and posttemperature stress. Changes induced in the depletion of endogenous monoamine levels 6 h after tyrosine hydroxylase or tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitions were regarded as changes in turnovers. High or low ambient temperature stress was acute (6 h) or chronic (5 wk). Brain NE turnover increased upon acute exposure to either a cold (5°C) or warm (32°C) environment. Chronic exposure (5 wk) to such tempratures reduced significantly (P<0.001) the elevated NE turnover. The central E and 5 HT turnovers of birds kept at 32°C for 6 h decreased and increased respectively, whereas determination of E and 5 HT of birds kept at 5°C showed an opposite pattern. Five weeks of continuous exposure to high and low environmental temperatures did not alter the changes in E and 5 HT turnovers from those observed during acute stress. Exposure of heat or cold reared turkeys to 24°C reversed the changes in E and 5 HT turnovers. Thus the results indicated an increase in NE turnover only during acute exposure to thermal stress. However, the changes in E and 5 HT turnovers persisted during chronic exposure.