In 1978, 147 North Carolina dairy farms were surveyed concerning their breeding practices. Average herd size was 121 cows (range 24 to 440). Of 17,773 cows 78.5% and of 4,300 heifers 25.5% were bred by artificial insemination. Approximately 25% of dairymen indicated they had increased artificial insemination in the past 3 yr, whereas 12% reported less. A bull was used on 88% of farms. Herds having the same number of cows but using 100% artificial insemination on the milking herd averaged more days open (13.3), longer calving intervals (.44 mo), and more cows leaving the herd because of reproductive problems (8.3% vs. 5.8%) compared to herds using 80 to 99% artificial insemination. Herds using 0 to 75% artificial insemination were intermediate between the two. Herds using 100% artificial insemination and those using 80 to 99% averaged 7050 kg milk and 1.8 services per conception. Herds using 0 to 75% artificial insemination had lower milk production (480 kg). Larger herds had lower reproductive performance. Herds with higher average milk production had more services per conception. Average estimated transmitting abilities of 88 natural service sires were 371 kg milk, −.05% fat and 10 kg fat.