Buffered Steiner trees for difficult instances

Charles J. Alpert, Gopal Gandham, Milos Hrkic, Jiang Hu, Andrew B. Kahng, John Lillis, Bao Liu, Stephen T. Quay, Sachin S Sapatnekar, A. J. Sullivan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


With the rapid scaling of integrated-circuit technology, buffer insertion has become an increasingly critical optimization technique in high-performance design. The problem of finding a buffered Steiner tree with optimal delay characteristics has been an active area of research and excellent solutions exist for most instances. However, there exists a class of real "difficult" instances, which are characterized by a large number of sinks (e.g., 20-100), large variations in sink criticalities, nonuniform sink distribution, and varying polarity requirements. Existing techniques are either inefficient, wasteful of buffering resources, or unable to find a high-quality solution. We propose C-tree, a two-level construction that first clusters sinks with common characteristics together, constructs low-level Steiner trees for each cluster, then performs a timing-driven Steiner construction on the top-level clustering. We show that this hierarchical approach can achieve higher quality solutions with fewer resources compared to traditional timing-driven Steiner trees.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-14
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2002


  • Buffer insertion
  • Global routing
  • Interconnect synthesis
  • Steiner tree

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Buffered Steiner trees for difficult instances'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this