Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of clinically relevant comorbidities and measures of physical and cognitive impairment in elderly persons with incident heart failure (HF). Background: Comorbidities and functional and cognitive impairments are common in the elderly and often associated with greater mortality risk. Methods: We examined the prevalence of 9 comorbidities and 4 measures of functional and cognitive impairments in 558 participants from the Cardiovascular Health Study who developed incident HF between 1990 and 2002. Participants were followed prospectively until mid-2008 to determine their mortality risk. Results: Mean age of participants was 79.2 ± 6.3 years with 52% being men. Sixty percent of participants had ≥3 comorbidities, and only 2.5% had none. Twenty-two percent and 44% of participants had ≥1 activity of daily living (ADL) and ≥1 instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) impaired respectively. Seventeen percent of participants had cognitive impairment (modified mini-mental state exam score <80, scores range between 0 and 100). During follow up, 504 participants died, with 1-, 5-, and 10-year mortality rates of 19%, 56%, and 83%, respectively. In a multivariable-adjusted model, the following were significantly associated with greater total mortality risk: diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33 to 2.03), chronic kidney disease (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.62 for moderate disease; HR: 3.00; 95% CI: 1.82 to 4.95 for severe), cerebrovascular disease (HR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.92), depression (HR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.90), functional impairment (HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.63 for 1 IADL impaired; HR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.04 for ≥2 IADL impaired), and cognitive impairment (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.73). Other comorbidities (hypertension, coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, atrial fibrillation, and obstructive airway disease) and measures of functional impairments (ADLs and 15-ft walk time) were not associated with mortality. Conclusions: Elderly patients with incident HF have a high burden of comorbidities and functional and cognitive impairments. Some of these conditions are associated with greater mortality risk.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation.
- Cognitive impairment
- Functional impairment
- Heart failure