Passive or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure has been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer of approximately 1.3- to 1.6-fold. Sidestream smoke contains higher concentrations of 4-aminobiphenyl and other urinary bladder cancer-causing aromatic amines than does mainstream smoke. However, there is very limited data regarding the impact of ETS on the urinary bladder, another site of tobacco-related tumors in humans. This study was conducted to determine if ETS exposure can be assessed using biomarkers of internal and effective carcinogen dose. Urine samples from 39 women, 21 spouses of smokers, and 18 spouses of nonsmokers were obtained and the levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and total DNA adduct levels in exfoliated urothelial cells were determined. Increases in both 1HP and DNA adduct levels were detected in the wives of current smokers. However, these increases were not statistically significant at the p < .05 level. Measurable differences in mean levels of 1HP, without an outlier, were obtained with a 1.4-fold increase in spouses of smokers. DNA adduct levels in exfoliated urothelial cells were 2.5 times higher in the same persons. These data indicate that there are measurable differences approaching statistical significance between the two smoking groups using a relatively small number of individuals. Biomarkers integrating exposure over a longer period and responding to cumulative dose (i.e., DNA adducts), may be more sensitive when measuring the low exposure levels of ETS.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Received ; accepted . This work was supported by the National Institute for Environmental Health Center for Environmental Genetics Grant ES06096 and by Training Grant no. T42/CCT510420 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Address correspondence to Glenn Talaska, Department of Environmental Health, The University of Cincinnati School of Medicine, 3223 Eden Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056, USA. E-mail: Glenn.Talaska@UC.edu
- Environmental tobacco smoke
- Passive smoking
- Urinary bladder