Carrots (Daucus carota L. var sativus) in the midwestern United States are generally raised commercially on sandy-loam or muck soils. Some smaller growers may not have the luxury of an ideal soil type, so raised beds are often recommended to improve taproot growth. To determine specific yield and shape responses of carrots to raised-bed culture in heavy soil, three hybrids ('Cupar', 'Envy', and 'Naval') were grown in 2019 and 2020 on raised or flat beds in clay-loam soil. In addition, two seeding rates (high or low) were incorporated into the split-split plot design. 'Cupar' was larger and less misshapen than the other hybrids, but total marketable yields were similar among all three. 'Naval' was the most cylindrical. High seeding rate generally resulted in more numerous but smaller marketable roots and no change in total marketable weight. Raised beds caused a 10.6% increase in total marketable weight by allowing more marketable roots classified as "short" (between 76 and 127 mm long, diameter >25 mm) to grow to lengths more than 127 mm long. The average taproot cylindricity was increased and diameter decreased by growing on raised beds. Soil penetration resistance at 7.6 cm was correlated with many of the measured responses.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Received for publication 7 Mar. 2021. Accepted for publication 12 Apr. 2021. Published online 27 May 2021. I thank Scott Coy for assistance with field work and carrot data collection; Bejo Seeds and Semi-nis Vegetable Seeds for donating seeds, and Vince Fritz, Benjamin Phillips; and three anonymous reviewers for manuscript input. This research is supported by the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station and the University of Minnesota Southern Research and Outreach Center. C.L.R. is the corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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