The authors used magnetic resonance imaging to measure gray and white matter volumes in cerebellar hemispheres and 4 vermian regions in 61 normal control (NC) men aged 23-72 years, 25 men with uncomplicated alcoholism (ALC), and 8 men and 1 woman with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (KS). NC and ALC took quantitative gait and balance tests. Gray but not white matter volume declined with normal age in both hemispheres and anterior-superior vermis. ALC had gray but not white matter cerebellar hemisphere volume deficits, whereas KS had deficits in both tissue types. ALC and KS had gray and white matter volume deficits in anterior superior but not posterior inferior vermis. ALC had a 1 SD ataxia deficit, significantly and selectively correlated with white matter volume in anterior superior vermis. Regional distribution but not severity of cerebellar volume deficits is similar in alcoholic individuals whether or not complicated by KS and relates to ataxia.