Automotive transmission is a key element in the powertrain that connects the power source to the wheels of a vehicle. To improve fuel economy, reduce emission and enhance driving performance, many new technologies have been introduced in the transmission area in recent years. This paper first reviews different types of automotive transmissions and explains their unique control characteristics. We then address the challenges facing automotive transmission control from three aspects: calibration, shift scheduling, and sensing, actuation and electronics. Along the way, research opportunies to further improve system performance are discussed.