The assessment for accurate identification and appropriate instruction of English language learners (ELLs) with learning-related disabili-ties has remained a chronic source of concern. One source of concern that has gone relatively unchallenged is the use of general outcomes measurement (GOMs). The authors examine the problems and challenges of using outcome mea-sures within the response to intervention (RTI) model in the identification and assessment of ELLs who struggle in schools and are suspected of having learning disabilities. They argue here that, despite its importance as a viable form of assessment, GOMs and, concomitantly, RTI may exhibit risks for these learners. In particular, the unique characteristics of ELLs with and without disabilities are often inadequately addressed in current research and practice. The authors re-view recent educational research on GOMs with respect to ELLs and present current trends in this body of work, along with discussing suggestions and recommendations.