CHAPTER 9: Pharmacological Regulation and Functional Significance of Chromatin Binding by BET Tandem Bromodomains

Michael D. Olp, Huarui Cui, William C.K. Pomerantz, Brian C. Smith

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Bromodomains are protein-protein interaction modules that recognize acetylated proteins and form acetylation-dependent complexes. Human bromodomains are encoded within nuclear proteins, often with enzymatic and/or protein/DNA-interaction domains. The bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) family is evolutionarily conserved and essential in yeast, fly, and mouse development. Humans encode four BET paralogues (BRDT, BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4) that contain two N-terminal bromodomains and a C-terminal extraterminal protein-protein interaction domain. BET bromodomain inhibitors modulate diverse transcriptional processes including cell cycle progression, lineage specification, and inflammation. Consequently, BET inhibitors are in clinical trials for hematological malignancies, solid tumors, and inflammation-driven diseases. However, clinical studies have identified dose-limiting toxicities associated with pan-BET inhibitors, thus hampering progress toward FDA approval. Compounds with selectivity toward the N- or C-terminal BET bromodomains have recently entered the clinic and exhibit differential and cell-type-specific transcriptional effects compared to pan-BET inhibitors. Compounds that degrade BET proteins or that bivalently bind to both the N- and C-terminal BET bromodomains have also been reported. However, the mechanisms linking different modes of BET inhibition to divergent transcriptional outputs are poorly understood. Better understanding of the protein-protein interaction targets and cooperative functions carried out by BET bromodomains would facilitate therapeutic application of BET inhibitors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProtein Degradation with New Chemical Modalities
Subtitle of host publicationSuccessful Strategies in Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology
EditorsSiddhartha Roy, Haian Fu
PublisherRoyal Society of Chemistry
Pages209-248
Number of pages40
Edition78
ISBN (Electronic)9781788011877, 9781788015479, 9781788016865, 9781788018012, 9781788018760
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

Publication series

NameRSC Drug Discovery Series
Number78
Volume2021-January
ISSN (Print)2041-3203
ISSN (Electronic)2041-3211

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (R35GM128840 to B.C.S., R01 GM121414-01 to W.C.K.P). M.D.O. is a member of the Medical Scientist Training Program at Medical College of Wisconsin, which is supported in part by National Institutes of Health Training Grant T32GM080202.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2021.

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