Bile duct epithelial cells, or cholangiocytes, proliferate in vivo under a number of pathologic (i.e., partial hepatectomy) and pathophysiologic (i.e., bile duct ligation, malignant transformation) conditions. However, little is known about the possible growth factors that modulate these proliferative responses, in part because an in vitro model to study proliferation of nontransformed, normal cholangiocytes is not available. We report here the development of a rat cholangiocyte cell line (MMRC, minimal media-requiring rat cholangiocytes) that grows under hormonally defined, serum-free conditions on plastic and maintains a cholangiocyte phenotype. Morphologic as well as functional studies indicate that the cell line is polarized and actively transports fluid and electrolytes in an apical to basolateral direction. MMRC, when cultured for 24 mo. and passaged 80 times, have not undergone malignant transformation, because the cell line failed to grow under anchorage-independent conditions or in nude mice. Cellular proliferation is accelerated 2-8-fold by insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor, growth factors known to stimulate tyrosine kinase receptors, and inhibited 2-10-fold by TGFβ and IL-2. Glyco-conjugates of primary (i.e., cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid) and secondary bile acids (i.e., deoxycholic and lithocholic acid) do not alter proliferation at low concentration (1 μM), but are toxic at higher concentration (10 μM). In summary, we have developed and characterized a cholangiocyte cell line derived from normal rat liver, which grows under hormonally defined, serum-free conditions, maintains a nonmalignant, cholangiocyte phenotype, displays morphologic and functional features of polarity, and alters its proliferation rate in response to a variety of growth factors.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Animal|
|State||Published - 1998|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We are indebted to Ms. Sue Kuntz for valuable help in electron microscopy, Ms. Pare Tietz for animal surgeries, and Dr. Vanda Lennon and Mn James Thorenson for performing the nude mouse experiments. This research was supported by grants from the NIH (DK24031) and Mayo Foundation.
- Growth factor