The molecular mechanisms underlying the targeting and localization of glutamate receptors at postsynaptic sites is poorly understood. Recently, we have identified a PDZ domain-containing protein, glutamate receptor- interacting protein 1 (GRIP1), which specifically binds to the C termini of AMPA receptor subunits and may be involved in the synaptic targeting of these receptors. Here, we report the cloning of GRIP2, a homolog of GRIP1, and the characterization of the GRIP1 and GRIP2 proteins in the rat CNS. GRIP1 and GRIP2 are ~130 kDa proteins that are highly enriched in brain. GRIP1 and GRIP2 are widely expressed in brain, with the highest levels found in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb. Biochemical studies show that GRIP1 and GRIP2 are enriched in synaptic plasma membrane and postsynaptic density fractions. GRIP1 is expressed early in embryonic development before the expression of AMPA receptors and peaks in expression at postnatal development and parallels the expression of AMPA receptors. Immunohistochemistry using the GRIP1 antibodies demonstrated that GRIP1 is expressed in neurons in a somatodendritic staining pattern. At the ultrastructural level, DAB and immunogold electromicroscopy studies showed that GRIP1 was enriched in dendritic spines near the postsynaptic density and was expressed in dendritic shafts and in peri-Golgi regions in the neuronal soma. GRIP1 appeared to be clustered at both glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. These results suggest that GRIP1 and GRIP2 are AMPA receptor binding proteins potentially involved in the targeting of AMPA receptors to synapses. GRIP1 also may play functional roles at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses, as well as in early neuronal development.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Journal of Neuroscience|
|State||Published - Aug 15 1999|
- AMPA receptor
- Neuronal synapses
- Postsynaptic density