Electronic inhomogeneity appears to be an inherent characteristic of the enigmatic cuprate superconductors. Here we report the observation of charge–density–wave correlations in the model cuprate superconductor HgBa2CuO4 + d (Tc = 72 K) via bulk Cu L3-edge-resonant X-ray scattering. At the measured hole-doping level, both the short-range charge modulations and Fermi-liquid transport appear below the same temperature of about 200 K. Our result points to a unifying picture in which these two phenomena are preceded at the higher pseudogap temperature by q = 0 magnetic order and the build-up of significant dynamic antiferromagnetic correlations. The magnitude of the charge modulation wave vector is consistent with the size of the electron pocket implied by quantum oscillation and Hall effect measurements for HgBa2CuO4 + d and with corresponding results for YBa2Cu3O6 + d, which indicates that charge–density–wave correlations are universally responsible for the low-temperature quantum oscillation phenomenon.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank A.V. Chubukov, C. Proust, B. Vignolle and D. Vignolles for useful discussions. We thank V.N. Strocov and V. Bisogni for technical and user support at SLS, E. Schierle at BESSY-II and D. Robinson at APS. The work at the University of Minnesota was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. N.B. acknowledges support through a Marie Curie Fellowship and the European Research Council. A.K., M.R. and A.I.G. were supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering. Ames Laboratory is operated for the US Department of Energy by Iowa State University. This research used resources of the APS, US Department of Energy, Office of Science User Facility. Y.L. was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 11374024).
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