Chemical contamination of drinkingwater in resource-constrained settings: Global prevalence and piloted mitigation strategies

Susan E. Amrose, Katya Cherukumilli, Natasha C. Wright

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Chemical contamination of drinking water (including salinity) puts more than one billion people at risk of adverse health effects globally. Resourceconstrained communities are the most affected and face unique challenges that require innovative safe water solutions. This review focuses on arsenic, fluoride, nitrates, lead, chromium, total dissolved solids, emerging organic contaminants, and, to a lesser extent, manganese, cadmium, selenium, and uranium. It covers contaminant prevalence, major health effects, and treatment technologies or avoidance strategies that have been proven effective in realistic water matrices and conditions. The review covers the levelized costs of water for pilot- and full-scale systems most relevant to resourceconstrained communities, with a focus on component costs, including the costs of power systems, lifting water, waste management, and labor. These costs are not universally reported, but can be significant. The findings are analyzed and discussed in the context of providing sustainable safe water solutions in resourceconstrained settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)195-226
Number of pages32
JournalAnnual Review of Environment and Resources
Volume45
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 17 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
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Keywords

  • Chemical contamination
  • Cost
  • Drinking water
  • Heavy metals
  • Pilot
  • Prevalence

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