Ambient ultrafine particles (UPs or PM0.1), PM2.5 and PM10 were investigated at the roadside of Syuefu road in Hsinchu city and in the Syueshan highway tunnel in Taipei, Taiwan. A SMPS (TSI Model 3936), three Dichotomous samplers (Andersen Model SA-241), and three MOUDIs (MSP Model 110) were collocated to determine the PM number and mass concentrations simultaneously. The filter samples were further analyzed for organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), water-soluble ions, and trace elements. The OC artifact was studied and quantified using the quartz behind quartz (QBQ) method for all PM fractions. Taking into account the OC artifact, chemical mass closure (ratio of the reconstructed chemical mass to the gravimetrical mass) of PM 0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 was then calculated and found to be good. The chemical analysis results of UPs at both sites showed that UPs in the present tunnel was mostly contributed from the vehicle emissions while UPs at the roadside was mainly influenced by urban sources.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Received 27 June 2009; accepted 10 April 2010. The financial support of the Taiwan EPA (EPA-96-U1U1-02-104 and EPA-97-U1U1-02-106) is gratefully acknowledged. Address correspondence to Chuen-Jinn Tsai, Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org