BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR perfusion has shown abnormalities of affected WM in cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, but serial data is needed to explore the import of such findings after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Our aim was to prospectively measure MR perfusion parameters in patients with cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy pre- and post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and to correlate those measurements with clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy prospectively underwent DSC-MR perfusion imaging at <45 days pre- (baseline), 30-60 days post-, and 1 year post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. MR perfusion measurements in the 10 patients and 8 controls were obtained from the parieto-occipital WM, splenium of the corpus callosum, leading enhancing edge, and normal-appearing frontal white matter. MR imaging severity scores and clinical neurologic function and neurocognitive scores were also obtained. MR perfusion values were analyzed in the patients with cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy at each time point and compared with those in controls. Correlations were calculated between the pre-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation MR perfusion values and 1-year clinical scores, with P value adjustment for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: At baseline in patients with cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy, both relative CBV and relative CBF within the splenium of the corpus callosum and parieto-occipital WM significantly differed from those in controls (P = .005-.031) and remained so 1 year posthematopoietic stem cell transplantation (P = .003-.005). Meanwhile, no MR perfusion parameter within the leading enhancing edge differed significantly from that in controls at baseline or at 1 year (P = .074 -.999) or significantly changed by 1 year post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (P=142-.887). Baseline Loes scores correlated with 1-year clinical neurologic function (r=0.813, P<.0001), while splenium of the corpus callosum relative CBV also significantly correlated with 1-year neurologic function scale and the neurocognitive full-scale intelligence quotient and performance intelligence quotient scores (r=-0.730-0.815, P = .007-.038). CONCLUSIONS: Leading enhancing edge measurements likely remain normal post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy, suggesting local disease stabilization. Meanwhile, parieto-occipital WM and splenium of the corpus callosum relative CBV and relative CBF values worsened; this change signified irreversible injury. Baseline splenium of the corpus callosum relative CBV may predict clinical outcomes following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.