Purpose: To describe non-metabolic, non-infectious etiologies of acute toxic leukoencephalopathy (ATL) on DWI MRI, and provide a useful acronym to remember them. Material and Methods: Our PACS archive was reviewed, yielding 185 patients with suspected ATL per MRI reports and clinical follow up; infectious or metabolic causes were excluded. Result/Discussion: The 87 included non-infectious, non-metabolic ATL patients' etiologies are represented by the acronym 'CHOICES': chemotherapy ('C',n = 34); heroin-induced ('H',n = 6), opioid analogues ('O',n = 14); immunosuppressant ('I',n = 11) or imidazole (n = 2); cocaine ('C',n = 1); environmental or ethanol abuse ('E',n = 5), splenial lesions ('S',n = 9), and 'other' (n = 5). Conclusion: The “CHOICES” acronym delineates various toxic etiologies of ATL.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
- Acute toxic leukoencephalopathy
- Diffusion-Weighted imaging
- Periventricular white matter