Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a clonal hematopoietic malignancy characterized by a balanced translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 that results in the generation of an abnormal bcr/abl fusion protein with increased tyrosine kinase activity. This abnormal fusion protein has transforming activity for hematopoietic cells in vitro and causes chronic myelogenous leukemia-like myelopoiesis in mice. Chronic myelogenous leukemia progenitor cells display abnormalities in their interactions with bone marrow stroma, perhaps due to defective adhesion molecule function. Conventional therapies for chronic myelogenous leukemia include hydroxyurea, busulfan, or interferon. Treatment with interferon may prolong overall survival, especially in patients who achieve a cytogenetic response. Related donor marrow transplantation can result in long-term survival in more than 65% of patients treated early in the course of disease. For patients without an available matched sibling donor, unrelated donor marrow transplantation or autologous marrow transplantation are alternative therapeutic options.