In vivo arterial stiffness is a dynamic property based on vascular function and structure. It is influenced by confounding factors like blood pressure (BP), age, gender, body mass index, heart rate, and treatment. As a consequence, standardization of the measurement conditions is imperative. General and method/device-specific user procedures are discussed. The subject's conditions should be standardized before starting measurements. These conditions include a minimal resting period of 10 min in a quiet room. It also includes prohibitions on smoking, meals, alcohol, and beverages containing caffeine before measurements. The position of the subject and time of measurements should be standardized. In comparative studies, corrections should be made for confounding factors. Repeated measurements are done preferably by the same investigator, and if available validated with user-independent automated procedures. As it is not feasible to discuss all methods or devices measuring arterial stiffness in one article, more attention is given to user procedures of commercially available devices, because these devices are of interest for a wider group of investigators. User procedures of methods/devices are discussed according to the nature of arterial stiffness measured: systemic, regional, or local arterial stiffness. Each section discusses general or method/device-specific user procedures and is followed by recommendations. Each recommendation discussed during the First International Consensus Conference on the Clinical Applications of Arterial Stiffness is quoted with the level of agreement reached during the conference. Also proposals for future research are made.
- Arterial stiffness
- User procedures