Clinical Doppler ultrasound for the assessment of plaque ulceration in the stenosed carotid bifurcation by detection of distal turbulence intensity: A matched model study

Emily Y. Wong, Hristo N. Nikolov, Meghan L Thorne, Tamie L. Poepping, Richard N. Rankin, David W. Holdsworth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

The assessment of flow disturbances due to carotid plaque ulceration may provide added diagnostic information to Doppler ultrasound (DUS) of the carotid stenosis, and indicate whether the associated hemodynamics are a potential thromboembolic source. We evaluated the effect of ulceration in a moderately stenosed carotid bifurcation on distal turbulence intensity (TI) measured using clinical DUS in matched anthropomorphic models. Several physiologically relevant ulcer geometries (hemispherical, mushroom-shaped, and ellipsoidal pointing distally and proximally) and sizes (2-mm, 3-mm and 4-mm diameter hemispheres) were investigated. An offline analysis was performed to determine several velocity-based parameters from ensemble-averaged spectral data, including TI. Significant elevations in TI were observed in the post-stenotic flow field of the stenosed carotid bifurcation by the inclusion of ulceration (P < 0.001) in a region two common carotid artery diameters distal to the site of ulceration during the systolic peak and the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Both the size and shape of ulceration had a significant effect on TI in the distal region (P < 0.001). Due to the use of a clinical system, this method provides the means to evaluate for plaque ulcerations in patients with carotid atherosclerosis using DUS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2739-2749
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Radiology
Volume19
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 23 2009

Keywords

  • Carotid artery
  • Doppler ultrasound
  • Flow models
  • Plaque ulceration
  • Turbulence intensity

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