Skeletal muscle has a tremendous ability to regenerate, attributed to a well-defined population of muscle stem cells called satellite cells. However, this ability to regenerate diminishes with age and can also be dramatically affected by multiple types of muscle diseases, or injury. Extrinsic and/or intrinsic defects in the regulation of satellite cells are considered to be major determinants for the diminished regenerative capacity. Maintenance and replenishment of the satellite cell pool is one focus for muscle regenerative medicine, which will be discussed. There are other sources of progenitor cells with myogenic capacity, which may also support skeletal muscle repair. However, all of these myogenic cell populations have inherent difficulties and challenges in maintaining or coaxing their derivation for therapeutic purpose. This review will highlight recent reported attributes of these cells and new bioengineering approaches to creating a supply of myogenic stem cells or implants applicable for acute and/or chronic muscle disorders.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Health Research Board Ireland Grant HRA/2009/79 (K.J.A.M.) and by NIH grants R01 AR055299 and RC1AR058118 as well as MDA funding # 238127 (R.C.R.P.). We thank Cynthia DeKay (LHI/UMN) for graphical design.
- Mesenchymal stem cells
- Muscle regeneration
- Muscular dystrophy
- Pluripotent stem cells
- Satellite cells