Coexisting depressive symptoms do not limit the benefits of chronic neuromodulation: A study of over 200 patients

Kim A. Killinger, Jonathan Fergus, Luke Edwards, Judith A. Boura, Jamie Bartley, Priyanka Gupta, Janice Tomakowsky, Jason Gilleran, Kenneth M. Peters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Aims: To examine the relationship between coexisting depressive symptoms and outcomes after staged neuromodulation procedures for refractory urological symptoms. Methods: Adults who enrolled in a prospective database and completed a Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8) at baseline were reviewed. The PHQ-8 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) assessed depressive/anxiety symptoms pre and 6 months post device implant. Urological symptoms were assessed with The Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index/Problem Index (ICSI-PI) and Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) at baseline, 3 and 6 months, and Global Response Assessments (GRA) post implant. Subjects, grouped by PHQ <10 and PHQ ≥10, were compared with Pearson's Chi-square, Fisher's Exact or Wilcoxon rank test, and Spearman's correlations. Results: In 117 PHQ <10 and 84 PHQ ≥10 patients, age differed (mean 59 vs 52 years; P = 0.001), and PHQ <10 had lower GAD-7, ICSI-PI, and OAB-q scores at baseline (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0003, and P < 0.0008, respectively). Implantation rates were similar between groups. Reoperation and complication rates within the first 6 months did not differ, similar proportions (majority) were improved on the GRA at each time point, and ICSI-PI and OAB-q scores improved significantly. PHQ scores only improved significantly for those with baseline PHQ ≥10. Baseline PHQ strongly correlated with GAD-7 at baseline and 6 months, and baseline ICSI-PI. Change in PHQ positively correlated with the change in GAD-7, 6 month ICSI-PI, and change in ICSI-PI from baseline to 6 months. Conclusions: Coexisting depressive symptoms do not limit the efficacy of neuromodulation and PHQ improvements correlate with improved anxiety and bladder symptoms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)815-822
Number of pages8
JournalNeurourology and Urodynamics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2018


  • depressive symptoms
  • implantable neurostimulators
  • overactive
  • urinary bladder

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