Objective: The aging HIV population has increased comorbidity burden and consequently non-antiretroviral medication utilization. Many non-antiretroviral medications have known neurocognitive-adverse effects ("NC-AE medications"). We assessed the cognitive effects of NC-AE medications in HIV+ and HIV-women. Methods: One thousand five hundred fifty-eight participants (1037 HIV+; mean age 46) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study completed a neuropsychological test battery between 2009 and 2011. The total number of NC-AE medications and subgroups (eg, anticholinergics) were calculated based on self-report. Generalized linear models for non-normal data were used to examine the cognitive burden of medications and factors that exacerbate these effects. Results: HIV+ women reported taking more NC-AE medications vs. HIV-women (P < 0.05). NC-AE medication use altogether was not associated with cognitive performance. However, among NC-AE medication subgroups, anticholinergic-acting medications, but not opioids or anxiolytics/anticonvulsants, were negatively associated with performance. HIV status moderated the association between these NC-AE medication subgroups and performance (P's < 0.05). HIV-serostatus differences (HIV-< HIV+) in global, learning, fluency, and motor function were greatest among women taking >1 anticholinergic medications. HIV-serostatus differences in performance on learning and psychomotor speed were also greatest among women taking 1 or more anxiolytics/anticonvulsants and 1 or more opioids, respectively. Conclusions: HIV+ women have increased cognitive vulnerabilities to anticholinergic, anxiolytic/anticonvulsant, and opioid medications. Potential synergy between these medications and HIV may explain some HIV-related cognitive impairments. It may be important clinically to consider these specific types of medications as a contributor to impaired cognitive performance in HIV+ women and assess the cost/benefit of treatment dosage for underlying conditions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
L.H.R. effort was supported by Grant Number 1K01MH098798-01 from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Data in this manuscript were collected by the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). WIHS (Principal Investigators): UAB-MS WIHS (Michael Saag, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, and Deborah Konkle-Parker), U01-AI-103401; Atlanta WIHS (Ighovwerha Ofotokun and Gina Wingood), U01-AI-103408; Bronx WIHS (Kathryn Anastos), U01-AI-035004; Brooklyn WIHS (Howard Minkoff and Deborah Gustafson), U01-AI-031834; Chicago WIHS (Mardge Cohen and Audrey French), U01-AI-034993; Metropolitan Washington WIHS (Seble Kassaye), U01-AI-034994; Miami WIHS (Margaret Fischl and Lisa Metsch), U01-AI-103397; UNC WIHS (Adaora Adimora), U01-AI-103390; Connie Wofsy Women’s HIV Study, Northern California (Ruth Greenblatt, Bradley Aouizerat, and Phyllis Tien), U01-AI-034989; WIHS Data Management and Analysis Center (Stephen Gange and Elizabeth Golub), U01-AI-042590; and Southern California WIHS (Joel Milam), U01-HD-032632 (WIHS I–WIHS IV). The WIHS is funded primarily by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), with additional cofunding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute on Mental Health (NIMH). Targeted supplemental funding for specific projects is also provided by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), and the NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health. WIHS data collection is also supported by UL1-TR000004 (UCSF CTSA) and UL1-TR000454 (Atlanta CTSA).
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