Comparative effects of single- and linear triple-site rapid bipolar pacing on atrial activation in canine models

Kyungmoo Ryu, Raja N. Ghanem, Celeen M. Khrestian, Naomichi Matsumoto, Robert N. Goldstein, Jayakumar Sahadevan, Parvin C. Dorostkar, Albert L. Waldo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Nonuniform conduction may cause block and/or delay, thereby providing a substrate for the onset and maintenance of reentrant atrial arrhythmias. We tested the hypothesis that linear triple-site, bipolar, rapid pacing (LTSBRP) of the right atrium generates more uniform wave-front propagation compared with single-site, bipolar, rapid pacing (SSBRP), thereby reducing and/or eliminating conduction block and delay that is otherwise present. Five dogs with pericarditis and three normal dogs were studied. Three plunge-wire electrode pairs were placed 5-7 mm apart in both perpendicular and parallel configurations at the superior aspect of the crista terminalis and were used to pace at 200- and 300-ms cycle lengths for ≤6 s. During pacing, 380 electrograms were recorded simultaneously from electrode arrays placed epicardially on the atria, which produced activation sequence maps for each pacing episode. Local conduction-velocity vectors were computed for each site during each episode. Histograms of absolute velocity vector angles from the x-axis (of the crista terminalis) were plotted to assess uniformity of wave-front propagation, and the magnitude of each vector was computed to assess the local speed. LTSBRP showed 1) more uniform linear activation wave fronts compared with SSBRP, 2) velocity vectors with a more uniform magnitude and direction compared with SSBRP, 3) a predominant absolute velocity vector angle vs. a scattered angle distribution with SSBRP, and 4) shorter right atrial activation time and faster mean epicardial speed than SSBRP for each pacing cycle length. LTSBRP created a more uniform wave-front propagation with less or no conduction block and/or delay compared with SSBRP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H374-H384
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number1 58-1
StatePublished - Jul 2005


  • Anti-tachycardia pacing
  • Atrial pacing
  • Cardiac mapping
  • Nonuniform conduction


Dive into the research topics of 'Comparative effects of single- and linear triple-site rapid bipolar pacing on atrial activation in canine models'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this