Four- and six-week-old turkeys were vaccinated subcutaneously using avian influenza virus (AIV) A/Duck/613/MN/79 (H4N2) killed oil-emulsion vaccine. Sequential serological tests using agar gel precipitin (AGP), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring antibodies to AIV were performed up to 4 weeks postvaccination, when birds were challenged intranasally using A/Turkey/MN/80 (H4N2) live AIV. The ELISA was 25 to 1600 times more sensitive than the HI test and was able to detect antibody production earlier than the HI test. All turkeys with an ELISA titer of greater than or equal to 800 were protected against homologous challenge, as measured by virus recovery 3 days postchallenge. Four turkeys out of 20 serologically negative by AGP and HI tests but ELISA-positive were protected.