Comparing meta-analytic moderator estimation techniques under realistic conditions.

Piers D. Steel, John D. Kammeyer-Mueller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


One of the most problematic issues in contemporary meta-analysis is the estimation and interpretation of moderating effects. Monte Carlo analyses are developed in this article that compare bivariate correlations, ordinary least squares and weighted least squares (WLS) multiple regression, and hierarchical subgroup (HS) analysis for assessing the influence of continuous moderators under conditions of multicollinearity and skewed distribution of study sample sizes (heteroscedasticity). The results show that only WLS is largely unaffected by multicollinearity and heteroscedasticity, whereas the other techniques are substantially weakened. Of note, HS, one of the most popular methods, typically provides the most inaccurate results, whereas WLS, one of the least popular methods, typically provides the most accurate results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)96-111
Number of pages16
JournalThe Journal of applied psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2002

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