Full 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift assignments were made for two sets of penam β-lactams: namely, the diastereomeric (2S,5S,6S)-, (2S,5R,6R)-, (2S,5S,6R)-, and (2S, 5R, 6S)-methyl 6-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-aza-bicyclo[3.2.0] heptane-2-carboxylates (1-4) and (2S,5R,6R)-, (2S,5S,6R)-, and (2S,5R,6S)-6-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-aza- bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2carboxylic acids (6-8). Each penam was then modeled as a family of conformera obtained from Monte Carlo searches using the AMBER* force field followed by IEFPCM/B3LYP/6-31G(d) geometry optimization of each conformer using chloroform solvation. 1H and 13C chemical shifts for each conformer were computed at the WF04, WC04, B3LYP, and PBE1 density functional levels as Boltzmann averages of IEFPCM/B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) energies over each family. Comparisons between experimental and theoretical chemical shift data were made using the total absolute error (|Δδ|T) criterion. For the 1H shift data, all methods were sufficiently accurate to identify the proper stereoisomers. Computed 13C shifts were not always successful in identifying the correct stereoisomer, regardless of which DFT method was used. The relative ability of each theoretical approach to discriminate among stereoisomers on the basis of proton shifts was also evaluated.
- Computed versus experimental shifts