Optimized scale factors for calculating vibrational harmonic and fundamental frequencies and zero-point energies have been determined for 145 electronic model chemistries, including 119 based on approximate functionals depending on occupied orbitals, 19 based on single-level wave function theory, three based on the neglect-of-diatomic-differential-overlap, two based on doubly hybrid density functional theory, and two based on multicoefficient correlation methods. Forty of the scale factors are obtained from large databases, which are also used to derive two universal scale factor ratios that can be used to interconvert between scale factors optimized for various properties, enabling the derivation of three key scale factors at the effort of optimizing only one of them. A reduced scale factor optimization model is formulated in order to further reduce the cost of optimizing scale factors, and the reduced model is illustrated by using it to obtain 105 additional scale factors. Using root-mean-square errors from the values in the large databases, we find that scaling reduces errors in zero-point energies by a factor of 2.3 and errors in fundamental vibrational frequencies by a factor of 3.0, but it reduces errors in harmonic vibrational frequencies by only a factor of 1.3. It is shown that, upon scaling, the balanced multicoefficient correlation method based on coupled cluster theory with single and double excitations (BMC-CCSD) can lead to very accurate predictions of vibrational frequencies. With a polarized, minimally augmented basis set, the density functionals with zero-point energy scale factors closest to unity are MPWLYP1M (1.009), τHCTHhyb (0.989), BB95 (1.012), BLYP (1.013), BP86 (1.014), B3LYP (0.986), MPW3LYP (0.986), and VSXC (0.986).