The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relative efficacy of two consultation-based models for designing academic interventions to enhance the educational functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children (N=167) meeting DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were randomly assigned to one of two consultation groups: Individualized Academic Intervention (IAI; interventions designed using a data-based decision-making model that involved ongoing feedback to teachers) and Generic Academic Intervention (GAI; interventions designed based on consultant-teacher collaboration, representing "consultation as usual"). Teachers implemented academic interventions over 15 months. Academic outcomes (e.g., standardized achievement test, and teacher ratings of academic skills)were assessed on four occasions (baseline, 3 months, 12 months, 15 months). Hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated significant positive growth for 8 of the 14 dependent variables; however, trajectories did not differ significantly across consultation groups. Interventions in the IAI group were delivered with significantly greater integrity; however, groups did not differ with respect to teacher ratings of treatment acceptability. The results of this study providepartial support for the effectiveness of consultation-based academic interventions in enhancing educational functioning in childrenwith ADHD; however, the relative advantages of an individualized model over "consultation as usual" have yet to be established.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgements The preparation of this manuscript was supported by NIMH Grant R01-MH62941. We gratefully acknowledge the efforts of all teachers and students who participated in this project as well as Lisa Marie Angello, Andrea Deatline-Buchman, Anuja Divatia, Lauren Dullum, Rebecca Eng, Karen Hailstones, Jilda Hodges, Jayne Leh, Stacy Martin, Jennifer Mautone, Erin Post, Eve Puhalla, Hillary Rogers, Timothy Scholten, Cotie Strong, Deanna Tipton, and Yan Ping Xin who served as research assistants for this study.
- Academic outcomes
- School intervention