Racemic anti-benzo[c]phenanthrene-3,4-diol-l,2-epoxide (anti-B[c]PhDE) is a powerful rat mammary carcinogen and is one of the most potent diol-epoxide tumorigens in mouse skin. Activation of ras genes has been proposed to be involved in tumorigenesis by this and related polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites. Therefore, we analyzed rat mammary tumors and mouse skin tumors induced by anti-B[c]PhDE for mutations at codons 12, 13 and 61 of the Ki-ras and Ha-ras genes. No Ki-ras mutations were detected in either tumor type. In the rat mammary tumors, no Ha-ras mutations in codons 12 or 13 were observed in 25 tumors analyzed. Only one, a CAA→CTA mutation, was detected in codon 61, of 42 tumors analyzed. These results indicate that Ki-ras and Ha-ras mutations are not involved in the induction of rat mammary tumors by anti-B[c]PhDE. Mutations in codon 61 of the Ha-ras gene were common, however, in mouse skin tumors induced by this diol-epoxide, being detected in 63% of the tumors analyzed; 90% of these mutations were CAA→CTA. A dose-dependent difference in the occurrence of the CAA→CTA mutations was observed; they were present in 75% of the tumors induced by a 100 nmol initiating dose of the diolepoxide, but in only 34.5% of the tumors induced by a 400 nmol initiating dose. A CAA→CTA mutation in codon 61 of Ha-ras was also detected in one of four acetone control tumors. In comparison with previous studies of other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and their metabolites, the results suggest that the reactivity with DNA of anti-B[c]PhDE is one factor involved in the induction of A mutations in Ha-ras genes in mouse skin, but further studies are required to evaluate the significance of these mutations in mouse skin tumorigenesis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by Grant no. CA-44377 from the National Cancer Institute. Some of the analyses were carried out in the American Health Foundation In W/ro/Molecular Analysis Facility, partially supported by Cancer Center Support Grant no. CA-17613 from the National Cancer Institute. We thank Feng-Chi Luo of the Facility for her technical assistance. This is paper 156 in 'A Study of Chemical Carcinogenesis'.