We have developed a cylindrically symmetric model with which to study what physiologic variables might contribute to the impedance cardiogram signal. We find the major contributions in this model to be due to dilation of the aorta and carotid arteries, changes in conductivity of blood in these same vessels due to red cell reorientation during flow, changes in the conductivity of the lungs, and changes in heart volume. The calculations suggest that the popular equation used to determine stroke volume from thoracic impedance data is not accurate under all conditions of the circulatory system.
- Cardiac output
- Impedance cardiography