OBJECTIVE This study examined different cooking methods for red meats in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among U.S. women who consumed red meats regularly (2 servings/week). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We monitored 59,033 women (1986-2012) aged 30-55 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline when information on frequency of different cooking methods for red meats, including broiling, barbequing, roasting, pan-frying, and stewing/boiling, was collected. RESULTS During 1.24 million person-years of follow-up, we documented 6,206 incident cases of T2D. Aftermultivariate adjustment including redmeat cooking methods, total red meat and processed red meat intake were both associated with a monotonically increased T2D risk (both P trend <0.05). Aftermultivariate adjustment including total red meat intake, a higher frequency of broiling, barbequing, and roasting red meats was each independently associated with a higher T2D risk. When comparing 2 times/week with <1 time/month, the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CI of T2D were 1.29 (1.19, 1.40; P trend <0.001) for broiling, 1.23 (1.11, 1.38; P trend <0.001) for barbequing, and 1.11 (1.01, 1.23; P trend = 0.14) for roasting. In contrast, the frequency of stewing/boiling redmeatswas not associatedwith T2Drisk, and an inverse association was observed for pan-frying frequency and T2D risk. The results remained similar after cooking methods were further mutually adjusted. CONCLUSIONS Independent of total red meat consumption, high-temperature and/or open-flame cooking methods for red meats, especially broiling and barbequing, may further increase diabetes risk among regular meat eaters.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
ticipants for their dedication and contribution to the research. Funding. This study was supported by National Institutes of Health grants CA-186107, CA-167552, and DK-058845. G.L. was supported by the In-ternationalPostdoctoralExchangeFellowshipPro-gram 2015 by the Office of China Postdoctoral Council. Q.S. was supported by National Institutes of Health grants HL-035464, ES-022981, and ES-021372. Duality of Interest. D.M.E. has received consulting fees from The Culinary Institute of America, Nutrition Development Group, LLC, Infinitus Company Ltd., Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition, and Campus for Health, and has served on The Culinary Institute of America Scientific Advisory Committee and the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition Advisory Board. No other potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported. Author Contributions.G.L.andQ.S.participated in the study concept and design and statistical analysis and interpretation. G.L. drafted the manuscript. G.L., G.Z., F.B.H., W.C.W., D.M.E., and Q.S. participated in critical revision and approved the final version of the manuscript. G.L. and Q.S. are the guarantors of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Prior Presentation. Parts of this study were presented in abstract form at the American Heart Association 2016 Scientific Sessions, New Orleans, LA, 12–16 November 2016.