SS18-SSX fusion proteins play a central role in synovial sarcoma development, although, the genetic network and mechanisms of synovial sarcomagenesis remain unknown. We established a new ex vivo synovial sarcoma mouse model through retroviral-mediated gene transfer of SS18-SSX1 into mouse embryonic mesenchymal cells followed by subcutaneous transplantation into nude mice. This approach successfully induced subcutaneous tumors in 100% recipients, showing invasive proliferation of short spindle tumor cells with occasional biphasic appearance. Cytokeratin expression was observed in epithelial components in tumors and expression of TLE1 and BCL2 was also shown. Gene expression profiling indicated SWI/SNF pathway modulation by SS18-SSX1 introduction into mesenchymal cells and Tle1 and Atf2 upregulation in tumors. These findings indicate that the model exhibits phenotypes typical of human synovial sarcoma. Retroviral tagging of the tumor identified 15 common retroviral integration sites within the Dnm3 locus as the most frequent in 30 mouse synovial sarcomas. miR-199a2 and miR-214 upregulation within the Dnm3 locus was observed. SS18-SSX1 and miR-214 cointroduction accelerated sarcoma onset, indicating that miR-214 is a cooperative oncomiR in synovial sarcomagenesis. miR-214 functions in a cell non-autonomous manner, promoting cytokine gene expression (e.g., Cxcl15/IL8). Our results emphasize the role of miR-214 in tumor development and disease progression.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: The study was supported by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (no. 26250029 to T.N., and no. 19K07702 to M.T.), and by a Grant-in-Aid for Project for Cancer Research and Therapeutic Evolution from Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (no. 17cmA002 to T.N.).
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Insertional mutagenesis
- Mouse model
- Synovial sarcoma
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article