Between 1975 and 1979 we performed coronary arteriography on 15 patients with end-stage renal failure and clinical evidence of severe ischemic heart disease. One patient died after the procedure of severe pump failure. Ten patients subsequently received coronary-artery bypass grafts, and two of these patients also received mitral-valve replacement. One patient, a diabetic, died of sepsis after surgery. Eight of the nine surviving patients, including the two patients who had undergone mitral-valve replacement, are markedly improved as a result of surgery. Our experience indicates that these patients can undergo angiography and coronary-artery bypass surgery at an increased but acceptable risk, provided dialysis is done before and after cardiac catheterization and surgery to control extracellular volume overload and hyperkalemia. The operation benefits patients with end-stage renal failure and severe ischemic heart diasese by relieving angina and improving their level of activity. It is unclear whether survival is improved for these patients.