Introduction: Cardiovascular risk factors are closely linked with dementia risk, but whether heart disease predisposes to dementia is uncertain. Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature and meta-analyzed risk estimates from longitudinal studies reporting the association of coronary heart disease (CHD) or heart failure (HF) with risk of dementia. Results: We identified 16 studies (1,309,483 individuals) regarding CHD, and seven studies (1,958,702 individuals) about HF. A history of CHD was associated with a 27% increased risk of dementia (pooled relative risk [RR] [95% confidence interval, CI]: 1.27 [1.07–1.50]), albeit with considerable heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 80%). HF was associated with 60% increased dementia risk (pooled RR 1.60 [1.19–2.13]) with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 59%). Among prospective population-based cohorts, pooled estimates were similar (for CHD, RR 1.26 [1.06–1.49], nine studies; and HF, RR 1.80 [1.41–2.31], four studies) and highly consistent (I2 = 0%). Conclusion: CHD and HF are associated with an increased risk of dementia.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Sources of funding: This work was partially supported by an unrestricted grant from the Janssen Prevention Center. D.B. and F.J.W. received a fellowship from the Dutch Alzheimer Foundation (WE.15-2016-02).
© 2018 the Alzheimer's Association
- Alzheimer's disease
- Coronary heart disease
- Heart failure
- Myocardial infarction