Amplitude Spectrum Area (AMSA) values during ventricular fibrillation (VF) correlate with myocardial energy stores and predict defibrillation success. By contrast, end tidal CO2 (ETCO2) values provide a noninvasive assessment of coronary perfusion pressure and myocardial perfusion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Given the importance of the timing of defibrillation shock delivery on clinical outcome, we tested the hypothesis that AMSA and ETCO2 correlate with each other and can be used interchangably to correlate with myocardial perfusion in an animal laboratory preclinical, randomized, prospective investigation. After 6 min of untreated VF, 12 female pigs (32 ± 1 Kg), isoflurane anesthetized pigs received sequentially 3 min periods of standard (S) CPR, S-CPR+ an impedance threshold device (ITD), and then active compression decompression (ACD) + ITD CPR. Hemodynamic, AMSA, and ETCO2 measurements were made with each method of CPR. The Spearman correlation and Friedman tests were used to compare hemodynamic parameters. ETCO2, AMSA, coronary perfusion pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure were lowest with STD CPR, increased with STD CPR + ITD and highest with ACD CPR + ITD. Further analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between AMSA and ETCO2 (r = 0.37, P = 0.025) and between AMSA and key hemodynamic parameters (P < 0.05). This study established a moderate positive correlation between ETCO2 and AMSA. These findings provide the physiological basis for developing and testing a novel noninvasive method that utilizes either ETCO2 alone or the combination of ETCO2 and AMSA to predict when defibrillation might be successful.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding was provided through a generous gift by the Dwight Opperman Foundation.
- Carbon Dioxide/*analysis
- Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- Electrocardiography/methods/*statistics & numerical data
- Ventricular fibrillation