Aim: To examine individual variability between perceived physical features and hormones of pubertal maturation in 9–10-year-old children as a function of sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: Cross-sectional metrics of puberty were utilized from the baseline assessment of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study—a multi-site sample of 9–10 year-olds (n = 11,875)—and included perceived physical features via the pubertal development scale (PDS) and child salivary hormone levels (dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone in all, and estradiol in females). Multi-level models examined the relationships among sociodemographic measures, physical features, and hormone levels. A group factor analysis (GFA) was implemented to extract latent variables of pubertal maturation that integrated both measures of perceived physical features and hormone levels. Results: PDS summary scores indicated more males (70%) than females (31%) were prepubertal. Perceived physical features and hormone levels were significantly associated with child’s weight status and income, such that more mature scores were observed among children that were overweight/obese or from households with low-income. Results from the GFA identified two latent factors that described individual differences in pubertal maturation among both females and males, with factor 1 driven by higher hormone levels, and factor 2 driven by perceived physical maturation. The correspondence between latent factor 1 scores (hormones) and latent factor 2 scores (perceived physical maturation) revealed synchronous and asynchronous relationships between hormones and concomitant physical features in this large young adolescent sample. Conclusions: Sociodemographic measures were associated with both objective hormone and self-report physical measures of pubertal maturation in a large, diverse sample of 9–10 year-olds. The latent variables of pubertal maturation described a complex interplay between perceived physical changes and hormone levels that hallmark sexual maturation, which future studies can examine in relation to trajectories of brain maturation, risk/resilience to substance use, and other mental health outcomes.
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© Copyright © 2021 Herting, Uban, Gonzalez, Baker, Kan, Thompson, Granger, Albaugh, Anokhin, Bagot, Banich, Barch, Baskin-Sommers, Breslin, Casey, Chaarani, Chang, Clark, Cloak, Constable, Cottler, Dagher, Dapretto, Dick, Dosenbach, Dowling, Dumas, Edwards, Ernst, Fair, Feldstein-Ewing, Freedman, Fuemmeler, Garavan, Gee, Giedd, Glaser, Goldstone, Gray, Hawes, Heath, Heitzeg, Hewitt, Heyser, Hoffman, Huber, Huestis, Hyde, Infante, Ivanova, Jacobus, Jernigan, Karcher, Laird, LeBlanc, Lisdahl, Luciana, Luna, Maes, Marshall, Mason, McGlade, Morris, Nagel, Neigh, Palmer, Paulus, Potter, Puttler, Rajapakse, Rapuano, Reeves, Renshaw, Schirda, Sher, Sheth, Shilling, Squeglia, Sutherland, Tapert, Tomko, Yurgelun-Todd, Wade, Weiss, Zucker and Sowell.
- adolescent brain cognitive development
- pubertal development scale
- salivary hormones