CRISPR-Cas-based transcriptional activators allow genetic engineers to specifically induce expression of one or many target genes in trans. Here we review the many design variations of these versatile tools and compare their effectiveness in different eukaryotic systems. Lastly, we highlight several applications of programmable transcriptional activation to interrogate and engineer complex biological processes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
J.A.C.M. and M.J.S. are part of a team supported by the Advanced Plant Technologies program, DARPA Award HR001118C0146. M.H.Z. is supported by an NIH NIGMS Biotechnology Training grant NIHT32GM008347.