Xenotransplantation is one promising approach to bridge the gap between available human cells, tissues, and organs and the needs of patients with diabetes or end-stage organ failure. Based on recent progress using genetically modified source pigs, improving results with conventional and experimental immunosuppression, and expanded understanding of residual physiologic hurdles, xenotransplantation appears likely to be evaluated in clinical trials in the near future for some select applications. This review offers a comprehensive overview of known mechanisms of xenograft injury, a contemporary assessment of preclinical progress and residual barriers, and our opinions regarding here breakthroughs are likely to occur.
- Antibody-mediated rejection
- Genetic engineering, pig
- Pancreatic islets, pig
- α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout