c-Jun is a component of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) complex, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression, cell proliferation, and cell transformation, as well as cancer development. Herein, we found that cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-3, but not Cdk2 or c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, is a novel kinase of c-Jun induced by stimulation with growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF). Cdk3 was shown to phosphorylate c-Jun at Ser63 and Ser73 in vitro and ex vivo. EGF-induced Cdk3 activation caused c-Jun phosphorylation at Ser63 and Ser73, resulting in increased AP-1 transactivation. Ectopic expression of Cdk3 resulted in anchorage-independent cell transformation of JB6 Cl41 cells induced by EGF and foci formation stimulated by constitutively active Ras (RasG12V), which was mediated by AP-1 in NIH3T3 cells. These results showed that the Cdk3/c-Jun signaling axis plays an important role in EGF-stimulated cell proliferation and cell transformation.