Cytochrome P-450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is a biotransformation enzyme that activates several procarcinogens. CYP1A2 is induced by cruciferous and inhibited by apiaceous vegetable intake. Using a randomized, crossover feeding trial in humans, we investigated the dose effects of cruciferous vegetables and the effects of any interaction between cruciferous and apiaceous vegetables on CYP1A2 activity. We also investigated whether response varied by CYP1A2*1F, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genotypes (glutathione S-transferases that metabolize crucifer constituents) and whether CYP1A2 activity rebounds after apiaceous vegetables are removed from the diet. Participants (N = 73), recruited based on genotypes, consumed four diets for two weeks each: lowphytochemical diet (basal), basal plus single dose of cruciferous (1C), basal plus double dose of cruciferous (2C), and basal plus single dose of cruciferous and apiaceous vegetables (1C+A). CYP1A2 activity was determined by urine caffeine tests administered at baseline and the end of each feeding period. Compared with basal diet, the 1C diet increased CYP1A2 activity (P < 0.0001) and the 2C diet resulted in further increases (P < 0.0001), with men experiencing greater dose-response than women. The 1C+A diet decreased CYP1A2 activity compared with the 1C and 2C diets (P < 0.0001 for both). Although there was no overall effect of CYP1A2*1F or GSTM1-null/GSTT1-null genotypes or genotype-by-diet interactions, there were significant diet response differences within each genotype. Additionally, CYP1A2 activity recovered modestly one day after the removal of apiaceous vegetables. These results suggest complex interactions among dietary patterns, genetic variation, and modulation of biotransformation that may not be apparent in observational studies.