A transplanted kidney in a patient developed focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, associated with severe systemic hypertension, proteinuria, progressive azotemia, and allograft hypertrophy. A pediatric kidney with two main arteries was used, and occlusion of the artery supplying the upper pole resulted in infarction of this portion of the allograft. Because other known factors predisposing to focal sclerosis were absent, it is postulated that renal hemodynamic changes associated with reduction in functioning renal mass, attended by striking stimuli for renal hypertrophy, resulted in progressive damage. The implications of these concepts are discussed in relation to the progression of renal diseases.
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