Background: Treatment with surfactant (S) decreases lung injury in paralyzed, mechanically ventilated animals. The use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as an alternative to mechanical ventilation may further improve acute pulmonary outcomes. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of surfactant (+S, -S) and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) on lung morphology and inflammatory markers in 24 spontaneously breathing piglets treated with CPAP or SIMV after saline lavage-induced lung injury. Methods: After induction of lung injury, animals were randomized to CPAP-S, CPAP+S or SIMV+S and treated for 4 h. Physiologic parameters were continuously monitored. After treatment, animals were euthanized and lungs fixed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected for neutrophil count and H2O2. Results: No physiologic differences were noted. BAL fluid from CPAP-S animals contained more neutrophils and more neutrophil H 2O2 than fluid from the SIMV+S or CPAP+S groups (p < 0.05 or greater). Pathologic injury scores were higher in dependent lung regions from CPAP groups (p < 0.05). Injury pattern scores showed greater dependent alveolar inflammation in all (p < 0.02), with more dependent atelectasis in the CPAP groups (p < 0.01). Morphometrics showed less total open alveolar air space in nondependent regions of the SIMV+S group compared to CPAP groups (p < 0.001). Dependent regions showed less total open alveolar air space compared to nondependent regions in the CPAP groups (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Animals treated with surfactant prior to CPAP or SIMV had less acute lung injury. SIMV+S animals had less open air space in nondependent regions. This suggests, during early ventilatory support, surfactant administration may modulate pulmonary inflammation. CPAP alone without surfactant may not provide optimal pulmonary protection. The addition of mechanical breaths may alter and add to injury.
- Chronic lung disease
- Mechanical ventilation
- Nasal continuous positive airway pressure
- Noninvasive ventilation
- Respiratory distress syndrome