Background: Despite considerable data, there is still controversy over which adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in 1st remission should receive high-dose therapy and a bone marrow transplant rather than conventional-dose chemotherapy. Analyses of data from randomized trials are complex, conclusions sometimes contradictory and results not sufficiently detailed to allow subject-level decisions. Objective: To determine appropriate use of high-dose therapy and bone marrow transplants in persons with AML in 1st remission with specific features. Develop a treatment algorithm. Panelists: Nine leukemia experts from diverse geographic sites and practice settings. Evidence: Boolean MEDLINE searches of acute myelogenous leukemia and chemotherapy and/or transplants. Consensus process: We used a modified Delphi-panel group judgment process. Age, WBC, cytogenetics and FAB-type were permuted to define 72 clinical settings. Each panelist rated appropriateness of high-dose therapy and a transplant versus conventional-dose chemotherapy on a nine-point ordinal scale (1, most inappropriate, 9, most appropriate) considering 3 types of donors: (1) HLA-identical siblings; (2) alternative donors (HLA-matched related or unrelated people other than an HLA-identical sibling); and (3) autotransplants. An appropriateness index was developed based on median rating and amount of disagreement. The relationship of appropriateness indices to the permuted clinical variables was considered by analysis of variance and recursive partitioning. Preference between donor types was analyzed by comparing mean appropriateness indices of comparable settings and a treatment algorithm developed. Conclusions: In people with an HLA-identical sibling, this type of transplant was rated appropriate in those with unfavorable cytogenetics and uncertain in all other settings. In people without an HLA-identical sibling, an alternative donor transplant was rated appropriate in those < 30 years with unfavorable cytogenetics, uncertain in those > 30 years and unfavorable cytogenetics and inappropriate in all other settings. Autotransplants were rated appropriate in people with unfavorable cytogenetics and uncertain in all other settings. An HLA-identical sibling donor, when available, was always preferred to an alternative donor transplant or autotransplant. In people without an HLA-identical sibling, an autotransplant was almost always favored over an alternative donor transplant with the magnitude of preference inversely correlated with transplant appropriateness.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported, in part, by Salick Health Care Inc., Los Angeles, California 90048-4520.
- Acute myelogenous leukemia
- Bone marrow transplant
- High-dose therapy