Dependence of thermal mismatch broadening on column diameter in high-speed liquid chromatography at elevated temperatures

J. D. Thompson, J. S. Brown, P. W. Carr

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90 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this paper, we compare a narrow-bore column (2.1-mm i.d.) to a conventional-bore column (4.6 mm i.d.) at elevated temperatures under conditions where thermal mismatch broadening is serious and show that narrow-bore columns offer significant advantages in terms of efficiency and peak shape at higher linear velocities. We conclude that the so-called thermal mismatch broadening effect is largely due to a radial retention factor gradient and not a radial viscosity gradient. The lower volumetric flow rates inherent with the use of narrower columns lead to lower linear velocity in the heater tubing and longer eluent residence times in the heater. Thus, with the same heater tubing at the same column linear velocity, narrow-bore columns give better thermal equilibration between the eluent and the column compared to wider bore columns. This means that high-temperature, ultrafast liquid chromatography no longer requires excessively long preheater tubing to thermally equilibrate the eluent to the column temperature. Consequently, the use of narrow-bore columns at high-temperature improves analysis speed and efficiency over wider bore columns. We also discuss the advantages of using liquid heat-transfer media as compared to air as the heat-transfer media. We show that an air bath ought not be used to heat the mobile phase because at high temperature (>80 °C) and high column linear velocity (>1.5 cm/s) the length of tubing needed to heat the mobile phase to column temperature is prohibitively long. Using accurate, empirical heat-transfer correlations, we estimated the length of tubing needed to heat the eluent as a function of the column linear velocity for both air and liquid heat-transfer media.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3340-3347
Number of pages8
JournalAnalytical chemistry
Volume73
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 15 2001

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