Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the relationship of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and combined oral contraceptive (COC) use with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Study Design: Two case-control studies of women who presented for gynecologic care and underwent cytologic and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing were performed. The first included oncogenic HPV-positive women grouped based on histology: negative (n = 152), CIN1 (n = 133), and CIN2-3 or greater (n = 173). For the second, 2 groups were identified: negative HPV/negative histology (n = 107) and positive oncogenic HPV/negative histology (n = 152). Results: Among oncogenic HPV-positive women, DMPA use was inversely associated with CIN2-3 or greater (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj], 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.1) and CIN1 (ORadj, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.01-0.6); COC use was not associated with either. Among histologically negative women, DMPA use was associated with oncogenic HPV (ORadj, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.4-15.8). Conclusion: Among women with oncogenic HPV, hormonal contraceptive use was not associated with an increased risk of CIN2-3 or greater. Longer-term DMPA use may attenuate the colposcopic and histologic features of CIN because women reporting such use were more likely than others to have cervical oncogenic HPV without evidence of CIN.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported in part by Public Health Service Grant CA34493 from the National Cancer Institute.
Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
- depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate
- hormonal contraception
- oncogenic human papillomavirus infection