Design and evaluation of a portable negative pressure hood with HEPA filtration to protect health care workers treating patients with transmissible respiratory infections

Hai Thien Phu, Yensil Park, Austin J. Andrews, Ian Marabella, Asish Abraham, Reid Mimmack, Bernard A. Olson, Jonathan Chaika, Eugene Floersch, Mojca Remskar, Janet R. Hume, Gwenyth A. Fischer, Kumar Belani, Christopher J. Hogan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: To mitigate potential exposure of healthcare workers (HCWs) to SARS-CoV-2 via aerosol routes, we have developed a portable hood which not only creates a barrier between HCW and patient, but also utilizes negative pressure with filtration of aerosols by a high-efficiency particulate air filter. Material and Methods: The hood has iris-port openings for access to the patient, and an opening large enough for a patient's head and upper torso. The top of the hood is a high-efficiency particulate air filter connected to a blower to apply negative pressure. We determined the aerosol penetration from outside to inside in laboratory experiments. Results: The penetration of particles from within the hood to the breathing zones of HCWs outside the hood was near 10-4 (0.01%) in the 200-400 nm size range, and near 10−3 (0.1%) for smaller particles. Penetration values for particles in the 500 nm-5 μm range were below 10−2 (1%). Fluorometric analysis of deposited fluorescein particles on the personal protective equipment of an HCW revealed that negative pressure reduces particle deposition both outside and inside the hood. Conclusions: We find that negative pressure hoods can be effective controls to mitigate aerosol exposure to HCWs, while simultaneously allowing access to patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1237-1243
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican journal of infection control
Volume48
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: The authors acknowledge support from the University of Minnesota COVID-19 Rapid Response Grant Program and the Institute for Engineering in Medicine (IEM).

Funding Information:
The prototype Aerosol Hood was constructed by Ron Bystrom, Peter Ness, Bob Jones, and Nathan Walkington of the University of Minnesota College of Science and Engineering Machine Shop. Funding: The authors acknowledge support from the University of Minnesota COVID-19 Rapid Response Grant Program and the Institute for Engineering in Medicine (IEM).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc.

Keywords

  • Aerosol based disease transmission
  • HEPA air filtration
  • Nosocomial infection

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